The United States government is comprised of three branches that are systematically established as a form of checks and balances within the federal governing apparatus. Each governing body has a subset of agencies that effectively operate the government through bureaucratic structure. Additionally, each branch of government has a distinctive role to play in managing the business of people. The three branches are the executive, legislative, and judicial.
The executive branch is operated by a duly-elected president and vice-president with an appointed cabinet. The cabinet officials are appointed by the president and sit as secretaries of each particular agency after approval from the Senate by a simple majority. The cabinet is not always chosen from the membership of any one political party, but the balance tends to favor the political party of the candidate who has won the presidential election.
The legislative branch is essentially the representative of the people. Each state elects a group of representatives from designated districts. Each state also elects two senators who sit in the upper house of the bicameral Congress. The two bodies of Congress are the House of Representatives and the Senate. This governmental branch is charged with establishing necessary legislation and sending approved legislation to the president for a final signature. The presidential signature enacts the legislation.
The judicial branch may be the most powerful branch of government because they actually determine the scope of power for the other branches. The purpose of the three branches of government is to keep one branch of government from assigning themselves too much power. All branches of government are limited in power by the United States Constitution, and the judicial branch interprets the proper application of all constitutional protections and requirements.